Least Resistance Training Concepts

Volunteers Training for Emergencies

  LRTC Emergency Response Team

Nikopoulos Needle and Jetting Wands


Supplying Jetting Wands with Air

This information sheet is primarily intended for persons associated with or working with the LRTC Emergency Response Team, however the information may be useful to other groups or private individuals who may wish to similarly equip a support unit or who may need to utilize the resources available on LRTC's Portable Water Supply Unit and from the Nevada Division of Emergency Management.

Please see Part One for background and context information on this subject.

Air Supplied Jetting Wands

There are locations where it is not practical to get water supply to a bogged animal incident. It is far easier to pack in a modified SCUBA cylinder to supply air to release the suction from around the bogged animal's legs and body.

We use an 80CF SCUBA tank with a 110 psi first stage regulator. The regulator hose terminates in a standard "universal" air chuck fitting. A standard 50 foot air supply hose is kept with the tank and regulator. A one-to-four garden hose manifold with an air chuck to 3/4 inch garden hose adapter attached is kept in the equipment box. The individual jetting wands are supplied with air the same as they would be with water supplied operations.

  Air Jetting Considerations

When jetting with air we have to remember the distinctive differences in physical properties between water and air. Water does not compress while air does. When jetting with water, there will be a relatively consistent outflow of water into the workspace being jetted and water tends to rise to the surface in a relatively uniform manner. With air the outflow will vary based on the resistance of the sand or mud and the pressure can build up until it blasts material out in small "air explosions." When jetting directly into mud or sand, the air bubbles can build and then rise to the surface under pressure, and in doing so produce distracting splatter if this reaction is not anticipated. When the material being jetted is covered by a layer of water, the outward disbursal of material is more controlled.

Inventory and Storage

The air supply equipment is stored under the portable stock tank on the portable water supply trailer.

Main elements include the SCUBA cylinder, air hose and "Air Supply" box. The large hose shown is also fitted with an air chuck. It can be filled with air and used as a floating boom.

Air Supply Box Inventory

  • Regulator and pigtail

  • One-to-four manifold with air chuck adapter

  • Double male air chuck adapter (for inflating the air boom)

  • Tire filler

  • Air nozzle (for filling flotation devices)

  • Pressure gauge

  • (2) lengths polypropylene rope (floating rope) with clips

  • (2) rolls of webbing

Additional notes:

When running combination water - air systems, all hoses used should be industrial grade and capable of handling 120 psi pressure. If lower pressure hoses are used on the "garden hose" side of the manifold, the air supply will have to be controlled at the manifold rather than at the jetting wands in order to prevent excessive air buildup in the hoses supplying the wands.

We have discovered a weakness in pipe thread to garden hose adapters that have swivel hose connections. We have received reports of the swivels failing. We use non-swivel type pipe to garden hose adapters and have experienced no problems. Brass quarter-turn shutoff valves with swivel connections have yet to give us any trouble.

Please note that none of the descriptions that appear on this site are intended to discourage anyone from acquiring pre-engineered purpose-built equipment. If you do build your own equipment, be sure to check the specifications and ratings of each component to verify that it is appropriate for the service intended. (We consulted with high pressure air experts before designing our systems.)

Return to Part One

Return to Emergency Operations Guidelines Index

The training information presented in these information sheets and guides is offered for illustrative and volunteer refresher purposes only. It is not a substitute for actual hands-on training. Equipment was provided by the Nevada Division of Emergency Management and Least Resistance Training Concepts. Funding for much of the training and equipment shown was made available through a grant obtained by the Nevada Department of Agriculture. For more information about training opportunities, please contact LRTC via email.

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